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Doctors' Answers to "Frequently Asked Questions" - Smallpox
Answer: By establishing your immune system with antibodies to smallpox, thus preventing subsequent infection. It is as if you have had smallpox although you have not had the disease.
Answer: Smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. It only exists in a couple of research labs(although I'm sure some defense agency has it squirreled away). The last reported case was in Africa about 5-6 years ago. You do not need to take any precautions since it does not exist(in the wild). Small pox is a virus that is transmitted in person to person contact.